- 2003-2010: Assistant/Associate Professor, Department of Culture, Organization and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- 2001-2002: Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
- 2000-2001: Affiliated Academic Coordinator Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Research Project on Social Security, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- 1997-2001: Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Social Sciences, Law and Governance Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
- 1992-1997: Doctoral Fellow, Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- 1991-1992: Research Affiliate, Centre for Rural and Regional Development, Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
- 1990-1991: Junior Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, University of Amsterdam.
- 2017: Research Fellow at the Security Institute for Governance and Leadership in Africa, Stellenbosch University (2017-2022)
- 2016: Visiting Academic, Business School, National University Singapore.
- 2016: Visiting Scholar, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
- 2010: Visiting Associate Professor, Singapore Management University.
- 2008: Visiting Senior Researcher, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.
- 2007: Visiting Professor, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Atma Jaya University Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
- 1996: Visiting Scholar, Program in Agrarian Studies, Yale University, New Haven, USA.